- Gastroparesis is a type of neuropathy (nerve damage) in which food is delayed from leaving the stomach.
- This nerve damage can be caused by long periods of high blood sugar.
- Delayed digestion makes the management of diabetes more difficult.
- It can be treated with insulin management, drugs, diet, or in severe cases, a feeding tube.
Gastroparesis is a disorder affecting people with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes in which the stomach takes too long to empty its contents (delayed gastric emptying). The vagus nerve controls the movement of food through the digestive tract. If the vagus nerve is damaged or stops working, the muscles of the stomach and intestines do not work normally, and the movement of food is slowed or stopped.
Just as with other types of neuropathy, diabetes can damage the vagus nerve if blood glucose levels remain high over a long period of time. High blood glucose causes chemical changes in nerves and damages the blood vessels that carry oxygen and nutrients to the nerves.
What are the symptoms?
Signs and symptoms of gastroparesis include the following:
- Vomiting of undigested food
- Early feeling of fullness when eating
- Weight loss
- Abdominal bloating
- Erratic blood glucose (sugar) levels
- Lack of appetite
- Gastroesophageal reflux
- Spasms of the stomach wall
These symptoms may be mild or severe, depending on the person.
What are the complications?
Gastroparesis can make diabetes worse by making it more difficult to manage blood glucose. When food that has been delayed in the stomach finally enters the small intestine and is absorbed, blood glucose levels rise.
If food stays too long in the stomach, it can cause problems like bacterial overgrowth because the food has fermented. Also, the food can harden into solid masses called bezoars that may cause nausea, vomiting, and obstruction in the stomach. Bezoars can be dangerous if they block the passage of food into the small intestine.
How is it diagnosed?
The diagnosis of gastroparesis is confirmed through one or more of the following tests:
- Barium X-ray
After fasting for 12 hours, you will drink a thick liquid containing barium, which covers the inside of the stomach, making it show up on the X-ray. Normally, the stomach will be empty of all food after 12 hours of fasting. If the X-ray shows food in the stomach, gastroparesis is likely. If the X-ray shows an empty stomach, but the doctor still suspects that you have delayed emptying, you may need to repeat the test another day. On any one day, a person with gastroparesis may digest a meal normally, giving a falsely normal test result. If you have diabetes, your doctor may have special instructions about fasting.
- Barium Beefsteak Meal
You will eat a meal that contains barium, which allows the doctor to watch your stomach as it digests the meal. The amount of time it takes for the barium meal to be digested and leave the stomach gives the doctor an idea of how well the stomach is working. This test can help find emptying problems that do not show up on the liquid barium X-ray. In fact, people who have diabetes-related gastroparesis often digest fluid normally, so the barium beefsteak meal can be more useful.
- Radioisotope Gastric-Emptying Scan
You will eat food that contains a radioisotope, a slightly radioactive substance that will show up on the scan. The dose of radiation from the radioisotope is small and not dangerous. After eating, you will lie under a machine that detects the radioisotope and shows an image of the food in the stomach and how quickly it leaves the stomach. Gastroparesis is diagnosed if more than half of the food remains in the stomach after two hours.
- Gastric Manometry
This test measures electrical and muscular activity in the stomach. The doctor passes a thin tube down the throat into the stomach. The tube contains a wire that takes measurements of the stomach's electrical and muscular activity as it digests liquids and solid food. The measurements show how the stomach is working and whether there is any delay in digestion.
- Blood tests
The doctor may also order laboratory tests to check blood counts and to measure chemical and electrolyte levels.
To rule out causes of gastroparesis other than diabetes, the doctor may do an upper endoscopy or an ultrasound.
- Upper Endoscopy
After giving you a sedative, the doctor passes a long, thin tube called an endoscope through the mouth and gently guides it down the esophagus into the stomach. Through the endoscope, the doctor can look at the lining of the stomach to check for any abnormalities.
To rule out gallbladder disease or pancreatitis as a source of the problem, you may have an ultrasound test, which uses harmless sound waves to outline and define the shape of the gallbladder and pancreas.
How is it treated?
The most important treatment goal for diabetes-related gastroparesis is to manage your blood glucose levels as well as possible. Treatments include insulin, oral medications, changes in what and when you eat, and, in severe cases, feeding tubes and intravenous feeding.
Insulin for blood glucose control
If you have gastroparesis, your food is being absorbed more slowly and at unpredictable times. To better manage blood glucose, you may need to try the following:
- Take insulin more often
- Take your insulin after you eat instead of before
- Check your blood glucose levels frequently after you eat and administer insulin whenever necessary
Your doctor will give you specific instructions based on your particular needs.
Several drugs are used to treat gastroparesis. Your doctor may try different drugs or combinations of drugs to find the most effective treatment.
Meal and Food Changes
Changing your eating habits can help control gastroparesis. Your doctor or dietitian will give you specific instructions, but you may be asked to eat six small meals a day instead of three large ones. If less food enters the stomach each time you eat, it may not become overly full. Or the doctor or dietitian may suggest that you try several liquid meals a day until your blood glucose levels are stable and the gastroparesis has improved. Liquid meals provide all the nutrients found in solid foods, but can pass through the stomach more easily and quickly.
The doctor may also recommend that you avoid high-fat and high-fiber foods. Fat naturally slows digestion — something you don't need if you have gastroparesis — and fiber is difficult to digest. Some high-fiber foods like oranges and broccoli contain material that cannot be digested. Avoid these foods because the indigestible part will remain in the stomach too long and possibly form bezoars.
If other approaches do not work, you may need surgery to insert a feeding tube. The tube, called a jejunostomy tube, is inserted through the skin on your abdomen into the small intestine. The feeding tube allows you to put nutrients directly into the small intestine, bypassing the stomach altogether. You will receive special liquid food to use with the tube. A jejunostomy is particularly useful when gastroparesis prevents the nutrients and medication necessary to regulate blood glucose levels from reaching the bloodstream.
By avoiding the source of the problem (the stomach) and putting nutrients and medication directly into the small intestine, you ensure that these products are digested and delivered to your bloodstream quickly. A jejunostomy tube can be temporary and is used only if necessary when gastroparesis is severe.
It is important to note that in most cases treatment does not cure gastroparesis — it is usually a chronic condition. Treatment helps you manage gastroparesis, so that you can be as healthy and comfortable as possible.